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Bolpur College was established in 1950 as an institution of higher learning by the generosity of a few large-hearted education-loving men of the locality. According to the West Bengal District Gazetteers: Birbhum (1975) ‘Bolpur College was established in the year 1950 under a scheme drawn up by the Education Department of the Government of West Bengal to provide employment opportunities to college teachers who had immigrated from East Pakistan as refugees as also to provide the evacuee students with opportunities to continue their studies .

Thus the college was founded with a definite purpose in view. Initially, the college conducted Intermediate classes in Arts and Science subjects; gradually, it was given affiliation to conduct classes for B.A. Degree in 1956. The B.Sc. Course was introduced in 1959. Four years later, that is, in 1963-64 the B.Com. Course was introduced. The college became a Government Sponsored college in 1950 under a scheme introduced by the Government of West Bengal. It was first affiliated to Calcutta University, and after the establishment of The University of Burdwan in 1962,  the college came under this university. The college has been a co-educational institution from its very inception and is housed in its own buildings situated in a reasonably spacious campus. It has a separate spacious three-storied library building. The college also has its own hostel for minority (male) resident students only.

The college now has eight Arts Departments, five Science Departments and a Commerce Department teaching Honours and General Courses. The General Degree course in Physical Education was added in 2014 and courses in Music and Education in 2015. So, from a small beginning, Bolpur College has evolved to become one of the largest colleges in the district. Birbhum, in the books of the government, is a backward district with a considerable tribal and minority population.  A good portion of the population belongs to backward classes as well. Thus the college was entrusted with the responsibilities of imparting undergraduate education to people who were and are disadvantaged in various ways.